Strength in the Face of Uncertainty

– January 1, 2013

Business Cycle ConditionsVol. II, no. 1 | January 2013The data depict an economy that is poised for growth, despite higher taxes, new regulations, and continuing drama in Polina Vlasenko, Ph. D., Research Fellow


Building a Solid Base

– December 24, 2012

Business Cycle ConditionsDecember, 2012by Steven R. Cunningham, PhD, Director of Research and Education


The Consumer Sees Reasons to Spend

– November 1, 2012

Business-Cycle ConditionsNov. 2012As the holiday season draws near, confidence rises because of falling unemployment, an improving housing market, lower debt, and buoyant stock Steven R. Cunningham, PhD, Director of Research and Educatio …


Out of Sync

– October 5, 2012

Business-Cycle ConditionsOctober 2012Consumers see a brightening economic picture, but business decision makers remain Steven R. Cunningham, PhD, Director of Research and Education


Government Sector Recession

– September 3, 2012

Business-Cycle ConditionsSeptember 2012Stimulus programs can’t go on forever. Eventually, something has to Steven R. Cunningham, PhD, Director of Research and Education


Strength Beneath the Surface

– August 6, 2012

Business Cycle ConditionsAugust, 2012Despite persistently high unemployment, income growth and consumer spending keep pushing a slow, but steady, recovery. by Steven R. Cunningham, PhD, Director of Research and Education


Bumps in the Road

– July 2, 2012

Business Cycle ConditionsJuly, 2012Crisis in Europe and fiscal uncertainty at home contribute to a slowdown in spending. But the recovery is likely to continue. by Polina Vlasenko, PhD, Research Fellow


Recovery in an Age of Thrift

– June 4, 2012

Business-Cycle ConditionsJune, 2012The expansion may seem tepid. But against a backdrop of unprecedented debt reduction, the economy doesn’t look all that Polina Vlasenko, PhD, Research Fellow


Costly Benefits Dampen Hiring

– May 7, 2012

Business Cycle ConditionsMay, 2012Overtime and temporary employment increase as the tab for health care makes businesses balk at adding permanent jobs. by Polina Vlasenko, PhD, Research Fellow 


Skittishness Restrains the Recovery

– April 2, 2012

Business Cycle ConditionsApril, 2012Businesses and consumers are driving the expansion. But lessons learned from the financial crisis are holding the pace of growth in Polina Vlasenko, PhD, Research Fellow


Business-Cycle Conditions Indicators Glossary

– February 19, 2012

Leading Indicators  (All dollar-denominated series are adjusted for price inflation.) M1 money supply. An estimate of money balances (primarily currency and demand deposits). When M1 does not keep pace with inflation, bank lending may contract, and hence economic activity. Yield Curve Index. The cumulative total of the monthly spread between the 10-year Treasury note and the effective federal funds rate. When the yield on the 10-year note is lower than the effective federal funds rate, the index will turn downward (i.e., the yield curve inverts), a signal that interest rates and the economy are headed even lower in the future. Index of manufacturers’ supply prices.  The percentage of purchasing agents who report paying higher prices in the current month compared with the preceding month. A higher index indicates stronger demand for business inputs relative to their supply. New orders for consumer goods and materials. All new orders for goods and materials used primarily by consumers (less food and energy). The placing of such orders tends to precede production of consumer goods. New orders for core capital goods. The value of new orders received by manufacturers of nondefense and non-aircraft capital goods. The placing of such orders tends to lead machinery production and production of the goods that machinery later produces. New housing permits.  Tends to lead construction expenditures. Ratio of manufacturing and trade sales to inventories. The balance between sales and inventories. Faster inventory growth relative to sales suggests a structural imbalance within the manufacturing sector. Vendor performance. The percentage of purchasing agents who experience slower deliveries in the current month compared with the preceding month. Slower deliveries indicate a higher volume of business activity. Index of common stock prices.  Uses monthly averages of daily indexes of closing prices from Standard & Poor’s 500 stock composite index. Changes in stocks prices reflect changes in investors’ opinions of profit prospects. Index is adjusted for price inflation. Average workweek in manufacturing.  The total of paid labor-hours of manufacturing production workers divided by the number of such workers. Employers tend to reduce the workweek of their labor force before they reduce the size of their workforce. Initial claims for unemployment insurance.  Inverted for analysis. Measures the average number of persons who file first-time claims for unemployment compensation each week in a given month. A decline in general business activity leads to layoffs. Change in consumer debt.  Percent change in the amount of consumer debt outstanding during the month from the amount three months earlier. Consumer debt includes auto loans and credit card debt, but not home mortgages or home equity loans. Borrowing is a source of consumer purchasing power Coincident Indicators Nonagricultural employment. The number of persons on the payrolls of all establishments, except agriculture. Labor is used in the production of goods and services and employment is the main source of household income and purchasing power. Index of industrial production. The physical volume of goods produced by the manufacturing, mining, and electric utility sectors. Although the industries covered account for about 25 percent of GDP, they account for the bulk of the volatile movements in business activity. Personal income less transfer payments.  Derived by subtracting transfer payments, which are often counter cyclical, from total personal income. Personal income is the main component of consumer purchasing power. Personal income includes compensation for labor, proprietors’ income, rental income, and income from interest and dividends. Transfer payments include government payments for programs such as Social Security and Medicaid. Manufacturing and trade sales. The aggregate value of sales by the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail trade sectors of the economy. Ratio of civilian employment to population.  The number of persons 16 years of age or older who are employed in the nonfarm sector divided by the total non-institutional population 16 years of age or older. A rising ratio may indicate tightness in the labor market. Gross Domestic Product.  The market value of all final goods and services produced within the nation’s borders. This is the broadest measure of economic output, spending, and income. Lagging Indicators Average duration of unemployment.  The average number of weeks that unemployed persons have been looking for work. This is an indication of tightness in the labor market. Changes in this series are inversely related to business fluctuations. The series is inverted for analysis. Manufacturing and trade inventories. The aggregate dollar book value of inventories of materials, goods in process, and finished goods stocked by the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail sectors of the economy. It peaks after the economy begins to slow, as sales fall short of projections. Commercial and industrial loans. The amount of short-term business loans and commercial paper issued. Declining profits usually increase the demand for loans. Ratio of consumer debt to personal income.  The credit used to finance personal consumption (excluding home mortgages and home equity loans) relative to the aggregate value of incomes received by individuals, unincorporated businesses, and nonprofit institutions. This ratio is an indication of the willingness and ability of consumers to incur debt in relation to their income. Change in labor cost per unit of output, manufacturing.  The relationship between the volume of production of manufactured goods and the cost of the labor involved in that production. Rising labor costs signal a squeeze on profits. Composite of short-term interest rates. The monthly average of the 30-day commercial paper rate and the 3-month Treasury bill rate. Rising interest rates suggest a developing credit squeeze.


Housing Tests the Bottom

– February 6, 2012

Business Cycle ConditionsFebruary, 2012Thanks to an upswing in the building of multi-family structures, the construction slump may be over. If the trend continues, the industry may never be the Polina Vlasenko, PhD, Research Fellow