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Alexander W. Salter

Nominal is Real; Real is Artificial

A basic tenet of macroeconomics and monetary economics is the difference between nominal variables and real variables. Nominal variables are expressed in current market prices. Real variables are adjusted to reflect the changing purchasing power of money over time (inflation or deflation). For example, the nominal interest rate is the rate that currently prevails in […]


Natalia Smirnova

AIER’s Teach-the-Teachers Initiative: Job Embedded

In my previous blogs, I described the first three criteria for a high-quality professional development workshop analyzed in the recent report, “Bridging the Gap: Paving the Pathway from Current Practice to Exemplary Professional Learning,” published by the Frontline Research and Learning Institute. The criteria that were discussed are sustained learning, intensive instruction, and collaborative engagement […]


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