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March 18, 2022 Reading Time: 3 minutes

At this week’s meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), monetary policymakers revised up their projections of inflation. The move was to be expected. Prices have grown much faster than the Fed had projected back in December. Ahead of the meeting, bond markets were pricing in around 3.3 percent inflation on average over the next five years.

FOMC member projections provide useful information for those interested in forecasting prices over the near term. The FOMC sets the course of monetary policy. And monetary policy is arguably the most important factor for forecasting prices. If the FOMC takes an accommodative stance, prices will continue to rise rapidly. If, instead, the FOMC tightens sharply, inflation will decline.

FOMC Projections

It is difficult to know how the FOMC will conduct monetary policy over the next few years, but FOMC member projections provide some indication. Members are asked to project inflation under the assumption that the Fed conducts monetary policy appropriately, as he or she sees it. Hence, the projections indicate how inflation will evolve if FOMC members do what they say they should do.

The median, central tendency, and range of FOMC member projections are presented in The Summary of Economic Projections and reproduced in Table 1 below. The central tendency of PCEPI projections is constructed by removing the three lowest and highest projections submitted for each period.

Median PCEPI Inflation Projection

Projection Date2021202220232024Longer run
December 20215.52.62.32.12.0
March 20224.32.72.32.0

Central Tendency of PCEPI Inflation Projections

Projection Date2021202220232024Longer run
December 20215.3–5.42.2–3.02.1–2.52.0–2.22.0
March 20224.1–4.72.3–3.02.1–2.42.0

Range of PCEPI Inflation Projections

Projection Date2021202220232024Longer run
December 20215.3–5.52.0–3.22.0–2.52.0–2.22.0
March 20223.7–5.52.2–3.52.0–3.02.0
Table 1. Summary of Economic Projections on Inflation

The median FOMC member currently projects 4.3 percent inflation for 2022, up from 2.6 percent in December. Projections for the following two years have also increased. The median FOMC member now thinks inflation should be 2.7 percent in 2023, up from 2.3 percent in December, and 2.3 percent in 2024, up from 2.1 percent. The lower and upper bounds of the projections also tend to be higher, though at least one member still believes inflation should be back down to 2 percent by 2024. On the other hand, the highest projection for 2024 increased from 2.2 to 3.0 percent.

Forecasting Prices

Higher projected inflation rates over the next three years suggest prices will be much higher than implied by Fed officials back in December. We forecast prices from FOMC member projections under the assumptions that (1) FOMC members set monetary policy consistent with their projections, (2) inflation is constant from month to month across each year, and (3) there are no unforeseen shocks to the economy over the forecast period. Forecasts from projections made in December 2021 and March 2022 are presented alongside the actual time series from January 2020 to January 2022 in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Forecast of Price Level from FOMC Member Projections

Our forecast of the price level based on median FOMC member projections indicates that prices will be roughly 11.8 percent higher in January 2023 than they were in January 2020, just prior to the pandemic. That amounts to a continuously compounding annual rate of inflation of 3.7 percent since January 2020. In December, the median FOMC member projected prices would be just 9.4 percent higher in January 2023–-or, that prices will have grown at a continuously compounding annual rate of 3.0 percent since January 2020.

The median FOMC member now projects inflation will be 14.8 percent higher in January 2024 than it had been in January 2020—up from 11.9 percent projected in December. By January 2025, prices are projected to be 17.4 percent higher instead of 14.3 percent higher, as previously projected. Based on current projections, one can expect inflation to average 3.2 percent from January 2020 to January 2025—50 basis points more than FOMC members projected in December and 120 basis points above the Fed’s average inflation target of 2 percent.

Last summer, one might have thought there was a chance that the Fed would adhere to its Statement on Longer-Run Goals and Monetary Policy Strategy and deliver 2 percent inflation on average. We don’t see how anyone could possibly believe that today. FOMC members are very clearly projecting that they will take no action to offset the high inflation observed over the last year; that inflation will likely remain above target through 2024; and that the price level will remain above its pre-pandemic trajectory forever.

Fed Chair Jerome Powell’s November statement killed the idea that inflation would be transitory. The most recent projections from the FOMC show how deeply that idea has been buried.

William J. Luther

William J. Luther

William J. Luther is the Director of AIER’s Sound Money Project and an Associate Professor of Economics at Florida Atlantic University. His research focuses primarily on questions of currency acceptance. He has published articles in leading scholarly journals, including Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Economic Inquiry, Journal of Institutional Economics, Public Choice, and Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. His popular writings have appeared in The Economist, Forbes, and U.S. News & World Report. His work has been featured by major media outlets, including NPR, Wall Street Journal, The Guardian, TIME Magazine, National Review, Fox Nation, and VICE News.

Luther earned his M.A. and Ph.D. in Economics at George Mason University and his B.A. in Economics at Capital University. He was an AIER Summer Fellowship Program participant in 2010 and 2011.

 

Selected Publications

Cash, Crime, and Cryptocurrencies.” Co-authored with Joshua R. Hendrickson. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance (Forthcoming).

Central Bank Independence and the Federal Reserve’s New Operating Regime.” Co-authored with Jerry L. Jordan. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance (May 2022).

The Federal Reserve’s Response to the COVID-19 Contraction: An Initial Appraisal.” Co-authored with Nicolas Cachanosky, Bryan Cutsinger, Thomas L. Hogan, and Alexander W. Salter. Southern Economic Journal (March 2021).

Is Bitcoin Money? And What That Means.”Co-authored with Peter K. Hazlett. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance (August 2020).

Is Bitcoin a Decentralized Payment Mechanism?” Co-authored with Sean Stein Smith. Journal of Institutional Economics (March 2020).

Endogenous Matching and Money with Random Consumption Preferences.” Co-authored with Thomas L. Hogan. B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics (June 2019).

Adaptation and Central Banking.” Co-authored with Alexander W. Salter. Public Choice (January 2019).

Getting Off the Ground: The Case of Bitcoin.Journal of Institutional Economics (2019).

Banning Bitcoin.” Co-authored with Joshua R. Hendrickson. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2017).

Bitcoin and the Bailout.” Co-authored with Alexander W. Salter. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance (2017).

The Political Economy of Bitcoin.” Co-authored with Joshua R. Hendrickson and Thomas L. Hogan. Economic Inquiry (2016).

Cryptocurrencies, Network Effects, and Switching Costs.Contemporary Economic Policy (2016).

Positively Valued Fiat Money after the Sovereign Disappears: The Case of Somalia.” Co-authored with Lawrence H. White. Review of Behavioral Economics (2016).

The Monetary Mechanism of Stateless Somalia.Public Choice (2015).

 

Books by William J. Luther

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Morgan Timmann

Morgan Timmann is an undergraduate student in the department of economics at Florida Atlantic University, co-author of FAU’s Monthly Inflation Report, and is an intern at the American Institute for Economic Research.

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